User Roles in Word Press

WordPress has a term that describes the role of the user; it’s called with User Roles. User Roles is designed to give the blog owner the ability to control and assign what users can and cannot do in the blog. Each Role is allowed to perform a set of tasks called Capabilities.

  1. Subscriber
    Since this level is the lowest user level in WordPress, then it is the selected default level when you add a new user from “WordPress Admin” -> “Users” menu. Users which have Subscriber level can only access their Profile from WordPress Admin panel. They also can only read the content of the site, thus they cannot add nor edit draft or post. This level usually is intended for users which allowed to submit the comment. For any of these a person must register and actually get their password to be able to comment.The capability that belongs to this user role is:
    – read
  2. Contributor
    This level can add a post to the blog in draft format only. They cannot publish their own post. It can only be published by someone else. This is a good way to have people add content that you need to approve to post.The capabilities that belong to this user role are:
    – delete_posts
    – edit_posts
    – read
  3. Author
    This level allows users to upload media files and be able to edit anything they add to the blog. Here you can’t control ahead of time what is posted or edited. Unlike Contributor, users which has Author role can write and publish their post without review.The capabilities that belong to this user role are:
    – delete_posts
    – delete_published_posts
    – edit_posts
    – edit_published_posts
    – publish_posts
    – read
    – upload_files
  4. Editor
    Users which have this user level can add, edit, delete their own posts, also they can edit anything content wise including links, pages, posts and approve or edit comments. They can not change anything within the structure like the theme or plugins.The capabilities that belong to this user role are:
    – delete_others_pages
    – delete_others_posts
    – delete_pages
    – delete_posts
    – delete_private_pages
    – delete_private_posts
    – delete_published_pages
    – delete_published_posts
    – edit_others_pages
    – edit_others_posts
    – edit_pages
    – edit_posts
    – edit_private_pages
    – edit_private_posts
    – edit_published_pages
    – edit_published_posts
    – manage_categories
    – manage_links
    – moderate_comments
    – publish_pages
    – publish_posts
    – read
    – read_private_pages
    – read_private_posts
    – unfiltered_html (not with Multisite. See Unfiltered MU)
    – upload_files
  5. Administrator
    This level can do anything and anywhere in your blog. Upload plugins, do upgrades, change settings this is the top level access.The capabilities that belong to this user role are:
    – activate_plugins
    – add_users
    – create_users
    – delete_others_pages
    – delete_others_posts
    – delete_pages
    – delete_plugins
    – delete_posts
    – delete_private_pages
    – delete_private_posts
    – delete_published_pages
    – delete_published_posts
    – delete_themes
    – delete_users
    – edit_dashboard
    – edit_files
    – edit_others_pages
    – edit_others_posts
    – edit_pages
    – edit_plugins
    – edit_posts
    – edit_private_pages
    – edit_private_posts
    – edit_published_pages
    – edit_published_posts
    – edit_theme_options
    – edit_themes
    – edit_users
    – export
    – import
    – install_plugins
    – install_themes
    – list_users
    – manage_categories
    – manage_links
    – manage_options
    – moderate_comments
    – promote_users
    – publish_pages
    – publish_posts
    – read_private_pages
    – read_private_posts
    – read
    – remove_users
    – switch_themes
    – unfiltered_html (not with Multisite. See Unfiltered MU)
    – unfiltered_upload
    – update_core
    – update_plugins
    – update_themes
    – upload_files

User Levels

Based on those User Roles above, the following is the user levels that assigned to them:

  1. Subscriber
    The value for this user level is “0″ (zero). You can find its value from “usermeta” table in “meta_value” field where the value in “meta_key” field is “wp_user_level”.
  2. Contributor
    The value for this user level is “1″ (one). You can find its value from “usermeta” table in “meta_value” field where the value in “meta_key” field is “wp_user_level”.
  3. Author
    The value for this user level is “2″ (two). You can find its value from “usermeta” table in “meta_value” field where the value in “meta_key” field is “wp_user_level”.
  4. Editor
    The value for this user level is “7″ (seven). You can find its value from “usermeta” table in “meta_value” field where the value in “meta_key” field is “wp_user_level”.
  5. Administrator
    The value for this user level is “10″ (ten). You can find its value from “usermeta” table in “meta_value” field where the value in “meta_key” field is “wp_user_level”. During the WordPress installation process, the install script automatically creates the admin user and assigns User Level 10. Normally, only one user should be permitted the User Level 10 privilege since that Level grants absolute power to control all others.

Please note that WordPress introduced a new user role that is called with Super Admin since version 3.0. This user role has access to the blog network administration features controlling the entire network.